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SQL STATEMENTS - SQL príkazy :: Article - Najsledovanejšie Svetové Múdrosti
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SQL STATEMENTS - SQL príkazy

SQL SELECT Statement:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name;

SQL DISTINCT Clause:

SELECT DISTINCT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name;

SQL WHERE Clause:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name
WHERE  CONDITION;

SQL AND/OR Clause:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name
WHERE  CONDITION-1 {AND|OR} CONDITION-2;

SQL IN Clause:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name
WHERE  column_name IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);

SQL BETWEEN Clause:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name
WHERE  column_name BETWEEN val-1 AND val-2;

SQL Like Clause:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name
WHERE  column_name LIKE { PATTERN };

SQL ORDER BY Clause:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN
FROM   table_name
WHERE  CONDITION
ORDER BY column_name {ASC|DESC};

SQL GROUP BY Clause:

SELECT SUM(column_name)
FROM   table_name
WHERE  CONDITION
GROUP BY column_name;

SQL COUNT Clause:

SELECT COUNT(column_name)
FROM   table_name
WHERE  CONDITION;

SQL HAVING Clause:

SELECT SUM(column_name)
FROM   table_name
WHERE  CONDITION
GROUP BY column_name
HAVING (arithematic function condition);

SQL CREATE TABLE Statement:

CREATE TABLE table_name(
column1 datatype,
column2 datatype,
column3 datatype,
.....
columnN datatype,
PRIMARY KEY( one or more columns )
);

SQL DROP TABLE Statement:

DROP TABLE table_name;

SQL CREATE INDEX Statement :

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name
ON table_name ( column1, column2,...columnN);

SQL DROP INDEX Statement :

ALTER TABLE table_name
DROP INDEX index_name;

SQL DESC Statement :

DESC table_name;

SQL TRUNCATE TABLE Statement:

TRUNCATE TABLE table_name;

SQL ALTER TABLE Statement:

ALTER TABLE table_name {ADD|DROP|MODIFY} column_name {data_ype};

SQL ALTER TABLE Statement (Rename) :

ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;

SQL INSERT INTO Statement:

INSERT INTO table_name( column1, column2....columnN)
VALUES ( value1, value2....valueN);

SQL UPDATE Statement:

UPDATE table_name
SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2....columnN=valueN
[ WHERE  CONDITION ];

SQL DELETE Statement:

DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE  {CONDITION};

SQL CREATE DATABASE Statement:

CREATE DATABASE database_name;

SQL DROP DATABASE Statement:

DROP DATABASE database_name;

SQL USE Statement:

USE DATABASE database_name;

SQL COMMIT Statement:

COMMIT;

SQL ROLLBACK Statement:

ROLLBACK;

SQL - Operators:

SQL Arithmetic Operators:

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
+ Addition - Adds values on either side of the operator a + b will give 30
- Subtraction - Subtracts right hand operand from left hand operand a - b will give -10
* Multiplication - Multiplies values on either side of the operator a * b will give 200
/ Division - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand b / a will give 2
% Modulus - Divides left hand operand by right hand operand and returns remainder b % a will give 0

SQL Comparison Operators:

Assume variable a holds 10 and variable b holds 20, then:

Show Examples

Operator Description Example
= Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if yes then condition becomes true. (a = b) is not true.
!= Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (a != b) is true.
<> Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not, if values are not equal then condition becomes true. (a <> b) is true.
> Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a > b) is not true.
< Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a < b) is true.
>= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a >= b) is not true.
<= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a <= b) is true.
!< Checks if the value of left operand is not less than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a !< b) is false.
!> Checks if the value of left operand is not greater than the value of right operand, if yes then condition becomes true. (a !> b) is true.

SQL Logical Operators:

Here is a list of all the logical operators available in SQL.

Show Examples

Operator Description
ALL The ALL operator is used to compare a value to all values in another value set.
AND The AND operator allows the existence of multiple conditions in an SQL statement's WHERE clause.
ANY The ANY operator is used to compare a value to any applicable value in the list according to the condition.
BETWEEN The BETWEEN operator is used to search for values that are within a set of values, given the minimum value and the maximum value.
EXISTS The EXISTS operator is used to search for the presence of a row in a specified table that meets certain criteria.
IN The IN operator is used to compare a value to a list of literal values that have been specified.
LIKE The LIKE operator is used to compare a value to similar values using wildcard operators.
NOT The NOT operator reverses the meaning of the logical operator with which it is used. Eg: NOT EXISTS, NOT BETWEEN, NOT IN, etc. This is a negate operator.
OR The OR operator is used to combine multiple conditions in an SQL statement's WHERE clause.
IS NULL The NULL operator is used to compare a value with a NULL value.
UNIQUE The UNIQUE operator searches every row of a specified table for uniqueness (no duplicates).

SQL - Useful Functions:

SQL has many built-in functions for performing processing on string or numeric data. Following is the list of all useful SQL built-in functions:

  • SQL COUNT Function - The SQL COUNT aggregate function is used to count the number of rows in a database table.

  • SQL MAX Function - The SQL MAX aggregate function allows us to select the highest (maximum) value for a certain column.

  • SQL MIN Function - The SQL MIN aggregate function allows us to select the lowest (minimum) value for a certain column.

  • SQL AVG Function - The SQL AVG aggregate function selects the average value for certain table column.

  • SQL SUM Function - The SQL SUM aggregate function allows selecting the total for a numeric column.

  • SQL SQRT Functions - This is used to generate a square root of a given number.

  • SQL RAND Function - This is used to generate a random number using SQL command.

  • SQL CONCAT Function - This is used to concatenate any string inside any SQL command.

  • SQL Numeric Functions - Complete list of SQL functions required to manipulate numbers in SQL.

  • SQL String Functions - Complete list of SQL functions required to manipulate strings in SQL.